Opada li inteligencija mladih

  Zoran Milivojević 28 June 2018
Nove generacije žive udobnim životom, prezaštićena djeca nisu snalažljiva, jer im se uklanjaju prepreke i izazovi, što usporava razvoj i jačanje samopouzdanja.

Poznato je da neki ljudi brže i bolje povezuju neke stvari od drugih – zbog čega se smatraju pametnijima. Da bi se objasnile ove razlike između ljudi, psiholozi su uveli koncept inteligencije kao jedne opšte mentalne sposobnosti.

Postoji više definicija inteligencije, a neke od najčešćih su da je to sposobnost snalaženja u novim situacijama ili da je to sposobnost sagledavanja situacije ili problema sa različitih strana. Tokom vremena ovaj koncept se širio tako da danas postoji „emocionalna inteligencija”, kao i koncept „multiplih inteligencija” prema kojem postoji najmanje sedam vrsta inteligencije.

Razliku primetili i učitelji

Istraživači inteligencije su primetili da su generacije posle Drugog svetskog rata imale sve bolje rezultate na testovima inteligencije. Jedan od prvih koji je 1987. godine objavio sistematizovane podatke iz 14 država o porastu izmerene inteligencije je novozelandski istraživač Džejms Flin, tako da je ovaj fenomen po njemu nazvan „Flinov efekat”. Rezultati su pokazali da iz generacije u generaciju dolazi do „masivnog” porasta inteligencije, koji je u proseku bio tri poena više, a nekada i do 10 poena, u odnosu na deset godina stariju generaciju. Ponuđeno objašnjenje je da do porasta dolazi zbog djelovanja kombinacije nejasnih faktora iz okruženja.

Iako su mnogi smatrali da će Flinov efekat nastaviti da djeluje i da će nove generacije imati sve bolje rezultate na testovima inteligencije, podaci iz novijih istraživanja pokazuju suprotni trend, koji je već dobio ime „obrnuti Flinov efekat”.

Istraživanja iz nekoliko zemalja su pokazala da koeficijent inteligencije mlađih generacija opada u odnosu na starije. Norveško istraživanje koje je analiziralo testove inteligencije regruta rođenih nakon 1962. pokazalo je da između onih rođenih 1975. i onih rođenih 1991. postoji prosečna razlika od pet poena manje u količniku inteligencije.

Iako sva ova istraživanja treba uzeti sa rezervom, izveštaji učitelja koji su ispratili školovanje niza generacija, takođe ukazuju da postoje negativni trendovi u mlađim generacijama. Ako pretpostavimo da zaista postoji trend smanjenja količnika inteligencije u mlađim generacijama, možemo se zapitati šta utiče na to.

Kada se dijete rodi njegov mozak je neka vrsta „poluproizvoda”. To znači da mozak mora da bude stimulisan da bi se razvijao, a ako nije stimulisan, tada se on tome prilagođava i smanjuje broj veza između neurona. Prema ovoj teoriji mlade generacije žive udobnim životom, što znači da su zahtevi okruženja mnogo niži nego što je to bio slučaj sa starijim generacijama. Poznato je da prezaštićena djeca nisu snalažljiva, jer prezaštićujući roditelji uklanjanju prepreke i izazove, usporavajući razvoj i sprečavajući razvoj samopouzdanja. Tome treba pridodati razvoj tehnologije koji značajno olakšava neke oblike rada. Mnogi mladi su nesposobni da bez digitrona riješe osnovne matematičke operacije.

Što je više društvenih pravila, to je manje razmišljanja i snalaženja. U visokouređenim društvima mladi usvajaju čitav niz pravila tako da je njihovo ponašanje „automatizovano”, bez svesnog promišljanja i donošenja odluka.

Među mladima je sve veći trend vrednovanja osećanja i intuicije, na štetu razvijanja mišljenja, znanja i analize. Umesto da pamte podatke koje će koristiti u razmišljanju, mladi znaju da sve podatke, ako im zatrebaju, mogu potražiti spolja – na internetu. U situaciji kada se procenjuje da će veštačka inteligencija i roboti u doglednoj budućnosti zameniti veliki broj profesija, možemo pretpostaviti da će mladi biti sve više okrenuti osećanjima i hedonizmu.

Posledica manje sna

Tokom spavanja se razvija mozak i povezuje naučeno. Podaci iz cijelog sveta ukazuju da danas tinejdžeri u proseku spavaju jedan sat manje. Pored snižene inteligencije to se plaća neraspoloženjem, gojaznošću, poremećajima pažnje i hiperaktivnošću. U Švedskoj su, na primer, šestomesečne bebe rođene 1993. spavale dva i po sata manje nego one rođene 1978.

Iako je konzumiranje ribe važno za razvoj mozga, u cijelom svetu je primećeno da djeca jedu veoma malo ribe.

Najuticajniji faktor iz okruženja jeste roditelj, tako da on ima moć da utiče na razvoj inteligencije svog deteta.

 

Izvor: Politika

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